Research Papers


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je°^keâefJe efovekeâj keâe peeleerÙe Évo/efJeceMe&

M‚- jru yky

^tkfr! gk; jh tkfr!* d.kZ dk ân; {kksHk ls Mksyk]
dqfir lw;Z dh vksj ns[k og ohj Øksèk ls cksyk
^tkfr&tkfr jVrs] ftudh iw¡th dsoy ik’kaM]
eSa D;k tkuw¡ tkfr\ tkfr gSa ;s esjs HkqtnaMA

Bilinguals and Educational Problems in Iran

Bilinguals and Educational Problems in Iran

Sara Khoshkouy

As many researchers believe language is an important instrument for learning. Education in Persian language to children has been faced to many problems in ethnic areas. Since learning plays an important role in human societies’ progress, some governments such as Singapore, Canada, England, …, encounter to Bilingualism phenomena at home and school too, it is required to address the education circumstance of ethnic children through using the bilingual education system, because teaching in native language, that shows the respect to their family and culture, leads to increase the self-esteem and promotes educational performance. Therefore, present study, which conducted in a review and library method, investigates the problems of the children of other Iranian people to help improving the educational statue of Iranian people and decreasing educational inequality, and provides necessary approaches, according to experiences of multilingual countries in education.

Government Primary Schools of Unnao and Mid-Day Meal Scheme: Some Issues, observation reflection from field

Government Primary Schools of Unnao and Mid-Day Meal Scheme: Some Issues, observation reflection from field

Shashi Pal

Role of education in facilitating social and economic progress or development is understood and recognized. Education helps to improve functional and analytical ability to open up opportunity for individual and group and manifests access to labour market and livelihood of people. Education is not a mere tool to enhance efficiency but an effective mechanism to augur democratic participation to individual and societal life. The Education Commission also described the role of education in social and economic transformation of India. It is also shown at national or international level no illiterate society can be able develop, modern and progress. Now, we are transiting to a knowledge society where the quality and relevance of education would play a crucial role in economic development. Poor quality of teaching learning and systemic level inefficiencies affect the learners as well the society in many ways. National Programme of Nutritional Support to Primary Education also known as Mid-Day Meal Programme. The Government of India started Mid-day meal (MDM) scheme in the government primary schools with the objective of improving health of the poor children. In addition, Right to Education implemented in April 2010 to enable these children the education starting from the age of 6 up to the age of 14 years.

A Micro Analysis of the Process of Implementation of Manual Scavengers Act 2013 in Tamil Nadu

A Micro Analysis of the Process of Implementation of Manual Scavengers Act 2013 in Tamil Nadu

G. Palanithurai &
G. George

This article seeks to investigate into the implementation process of the prohibition of employment as manual scavenger and their rehabilitation act, 2013 in Tamil Nadu through a micro study conducted in one of the backward districts. The article brought to light the ambivalent attitude of the implementation agencies and the poor scientific support system for creating a scientific sanitation system to maintain sanitation and rehabilitation of the manual scavengers. It brought to highlight the seriousness of the issues associated with the implementation process of the act.

Spatial Distances and Binary oppositions In Section One of Sharan Kumar Limbale’s Akkarmashi.

Spatial Distances and Binary oppositions In Section One of Sharan Kumar Limbale’s Akkarmashi.

Dr. Kotti Sree Ramesh
**Dr. D. Jyotirmai

It is difficult for them (foreigners) to understand how it is possible for a few untouchables to live on the edge of village consisting of a large number of Hindus; go through the village daily to free it from the most disagreeable of its filth and to carry the errands of all and sundry; collect food at the doors of the Hindus; buy spices and oil at the shops of the Hindu Bania from a distance; regards the village in every way as their home – and yet never touch or be touched by any one belonging to the village.

Graded Inequality, Poverty, Epidemics and Mortality during the Great Famine in Colonial South India

Drought, crop failure, poverty, hunger, epidemics, and mortality along with failure of humanity in the form of caste discrimination occurred during the Great famine (1876-1878) in Colonial South India. Famine and the misery associated with it is not a new phenomenon to human society. But the various forms of suffering based on caste stratification is new to the world but old to the Indian society. This kind of social stratification as a basis for discrimination is considered as inequality by the Social Scientists. Inequality was experienced in different ways by different caste people based on the hierarchical order. For instance, during any kind of natural calamity like floods, droughts, storms, avalanches and the like the people belonging to the lower strata faced more misery than the people of higher strata. Baba Sahib Ambedkar termed this unequal social discriminations as ‘Graded Inequality’. The present paper attempts to analyse how the lower caste and out caste people were affected due to the graded inequality along caste lines in bad times, particularly during the great famine of 1876-78 in Colonial South India with special reference to poverty, epidemics and mortality.

Tribal Population in Dahod District of Gujarat: An Evaluation of Socio-Economic Profile

The Indian tribes as elsewhere in the world is known for their unique ways of living and specific culture which provide them a distinct identity on national picture. The peculiar life style, basic and traditional technology and their tendency to inhabitant the private and isolated from the mainstream of national life. Dahod district of Gujarat is covered by forest and inhabited by scheduled tribes. This paper reports the socio-economic profile of the scheduled tribes in this region. Present study has taken the sample of tribal households from Patelia and Bhils tribes. Seventy per cent of sample tribal populations areilliterate. More than 90 percent were engaged in agriculture. Most of the families’ income depends on primary sector and 48 percent tribal heads have income around 5,000.00 to 10,000.000. At present both government and NGOs have put more attention on health and education forthem.

Empowerment of Tribal Women Through Education In Jammu And Kashmir

Empowerment is a multi-dimensional social process that helps people to gain control over their own lives. It is a process that fosters power in people for use in their own lives, their communities and their society, by acting on issue they define as important. Empowerment through education is ideally seen as a continuous holistic process with cognitive, psychological, economic and political dimensions in order to achieve emancipation. Education, in the context of empowerment, is a weapon of great potency, as it provides exposure and access to new ideas and way of thinking, and triggered a demand for change. The paper highlights the role of education in the empowerment of tribal ladies specifically, with the goal to discover their current educational status and points out the obstructions which limitise tribal women education. Finally study gives respectable proposal for their empowerment.

Socio-economic development of tribal in Odisha –An inter-district analysis

An attempt has been made in this study to have a comparative analysis based on human development parameters in the tribal and non-tribal districts of Odisha. The study also highlights some of the fact on the change in socio-economic status of tribals in Odisha over a period of six decades. Odisha has the third highest tribal population which accounts for 9.66 per cent of the total tribal population of India. The greatest challenge that the Government of India has been facing since independence is the proper provision of social justice to the scheduled tribe people, by improving their socio-economic conditions. For this, a lot of development programmes has been initiated by the Government. But it has been found out that a very high percentage of ST population lives below the poverty line in Odisha having a very high Infant Mortality Rate and low literacy rate especially among tribal women. Further tribal districts have performed poorly in terms of various indicators of human development vis a vis non-tribal districts of the state. Thus a concrete effort is required on part of state to fill up the holes in different development programmes for tribal so that they can reap its benefit and the gap between tribal and non-tribal in terms of different socio–economic indicators can be narrowed down.

The Trivializa?? on of Skin Color vis-à-vis Social Work Eurocentrism: Implica?? ons for African-Americans/ Dalit-Indians

The Trivialization of Skin Color vis-à-vis Social Work Eurocentrism: Implications for African-Americans/Dalit-Indians

Dr. Hall


The problem of Social Work in the 21st century remains a problem of the color line. Said problem is a Eurocentric obstacle to comprehensive practice and curriculum content. Skin color discrimination is a critical issue in the African-American/Dalit-Indian communities. Eurocentrists who determine the priorities of African-Americans/Dalit-Indians have facilitated the canonization of alien practices absent conclusive debate or empirical analysis. To educate Social Work practitioners about the significance of skin color among African-Americans/Dalit-Indians will require an international acknowledgement of its existence. That will enable critical information to assume its rightful level of importance commensurate with the 21st century and beyond.


lkekftd U;k; vkSj MkW- vEcsMdj dk ;ksxnku

*MkW- lq'khy dqekj f=ikBh

ckck lkgsc MkW- Hkhejko vEcsMdj lkekftd U;k; ds egku ;ks)k FksA os ,d ,sls Økafrdkjh Fks ftUgksaus nfyr ,oa 'kksf"kr oxZ ds lkekftd] vkfFkZd] jktuhfrd ,oa /kkfeZd U;k; vkSj vf/kdkj ds fy, thou i;ZUr la?k"kZ fd;kA
lkekftd U;k; dk vkn'kZ ,d U;k;iw.kZ lkekftd O;oLFkk dks lqjf{kr vkSj fodflr djds vketu ds dY;k.k dk iks"k.k vkSj mldk fodkl djus dh xkjUVh iznku djrk gSA lkekftd U;k; dh ;g ekax gS fd /ku rFkk fo'ks"kkf/kdkj ls mRiUu vlekurk dks nwj fd;k tk;A /ku] /keZ] tkfr] fyax] tUe LFkku vkfn ds vk/kkj ij O;fDr&O;fDr esa u rks foHksn fd;k tk; vkSj u gh fdlh dks fo'ks"k lqfo/kk,a nh tk;A


vkfnoklh ijEijkvksa esa i;; psruk

*lq/kk lksudj

vkt Hkkjr gh ugha] lEiw.kZ fo'o ds lkeus izeq[k leL;k dksbZ gS rks og gS i;kZoj.k larqyu dhA orZeku vk/kqfud fodkl ds ifjofrZr gksrs ekun.Mksa us i;kZoj.k ds leLr ?kVdksa ;Fkk & ty] ok;q] e`nk] ou] tho&tUrqvksa dks izHkkfor fd;k gSA fodkl ds bl pØ us gesa fouk'k ds }kj ij ykdj [kM+k dj fn;k gSA izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk vR;f/kd nksgu dj ekuo us fofHkUu izkd`frd vkinkvksa&HkwdEi] vfro`f"V vuko`f"V] ck<+] leqnzh ygjsa] e`nk {kj.k] e:LFkyhdj.k] tUrqvksa ,oa ikniksa dk yqIr gksuk vkfn dks fueU=.k fn;k gSA


cSxk tutkfr ij tuek/;eksa dk çHkko

*vfuy dqekj ik.Ms;
**M‚- Jhdkar flag

e/;çns'k ns'k esa tutkfr;ksa dh lokZf/kd tula[;k okyk çns'k gSA ;gka dbZ tutkrh; leqnk; fuokl djrs gSaA cSxk tutkfr fodkl dh –f"V ls vR;ar fiNM+h tutkfr;ksa esa ls ,d gSA cSxk NksVk ukxiqj dh vkfne tutkfr HkqbZ;ka dh e/;çns'kh; 'kk[kk gSA cSxk vkt nqxZe igkM+ksa] mifÙkdkvksa ls ckgj fudydj lekt dh


cSxk tutkfr ij tuek/;eksa dk çHkko

*vfuy dqekj ik.Ms;
**M‚- Jhdkar flag

e/;çns'k ns'k esa tutkfr;ksa dh lokZf/kd tula[;k okyk çns'k gSA ;gka dbZ tutkrh; leqnk; fuokl djrs gSaA cSxk tutkfr fodkl dh –f"V ls vR;ar fiNM+h tutkfr;ksa esa ls ,d gSA cSxk NksVk ukxiqj dh vkfne tutkfr HkqbZ;ka dh e/;çns'kh; 'kk[kk gSA cSxk vkt nqxZe igkM+ksa] mifÙkdkvksa ls ckgj fudydj lekt dh


oSfnd lfgR; esa of.kZr 'kwnzksa dh fLFkfr

*MkW0 fot; dqekj

izkphu Hkkjrh; ok³~e; esa lw= lkfgR; dk viuk fof'k"V LFkku gSA ;s xazUFk u dsoy ,d u;s ;qx ds |ksrd gS vfirq izkphu Hkkjr dh lkekftd ,oa /kkfeZd n'kk dh tkudkjh ds egRoiw.kZ lzksr Hkh gSA ftlls izkphure fgUnw lkekftd thou 'kSyh dh :ijs[kk dh tkudkjh feyrh gSA okLro esa lw= lkfgR; ,d ,slh J``a[kyk gS tks oSfnd lkfgR; dks ijorhZ laLd`r lkfgR; ls tksM+rh gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd vf/kdka'k Le`frdkj vius fo"k; izfriknu esa lw=dkjksa ds gSA ;|fi lexz lw= lkfgR; pkj Hkkxksa esa foHkDr gS] ysfdu bu pkjksa esa dsoy x`º; lw= vkSj /keZ lw= gh gekjs v/;;u dh n`f"V ls mi;ksxh gSA D;ksafd ;s ekuo ds lkekftd rFkk O;fDrxr thou esa gksus okyh leLr ?kVukvksa dk foLr`r o.kZu djrs gSA


mRrj izns'k ds eaf=e.Myksa esa nfyr usr`Ro dk v/;;u
*MkW0 vkdk'k xkSre
**MkW0 vt; dqekj

mRrj izns'k esa jktuhfrd nyks dh ljdkjksa esas eaf= ifj"kn esa nfyr Hkkxhnkjh dSlh jgh gSA vkjf{kr nfyr usr`Ro ds dk;Z djus dk ,sfrgkfld] fo'ys"k.kkRed i|fr;ksa ls v/;;u fd;k x;k gSA nfyr jktuhfr usr`Ro mRrj izns'k lfgr ns'k ds fofHkUu jkT;ksa eas viuh vyx igpku vkSj izHkko NksM+ jgk gSA izns'k esa 1952 ls ysdj 2014 rd nfyr usr`Ro dh fofHkUu jktuhfrd nyksa esa mifLFkfr jgh gSA mRrj izns'k esa cgqtu lekt ikVhZ dk 2007 esa cgqer ds lkFk pquko thr dj vkuk vkSj fQj 2012 ds fo/kkulHkk pquko rFkk 2014 ds yksdlHkk pquko esa gkj dk eaqg ns[kuk bl vksj ladsr djrk gS fd vkRe fuHkZj nfyr jktuhfrd usr`Ro dks ;g ns[kuk gksxk fd ftl nfyr turk ds jktuhfrd /kqzohdj.k ls pquko esa lQyrk feyrh gS] mlds fy, D;k okLro esa usr`Ro ds }kjk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gS\ bu ckrksa dks laKku esa j[kdj nfyr usr`Ro dks dk;Z djuk pkfg,A nfyr fgrksa ij dk;Z djus okys nfyr jktuhfrd usr`Ro dh pqukoh lQyrk vkSj vlQyrk ds dkj.kksa dk fo'ys"k.k Hkh izLrqr v/;;u esa 'kkfey fd;k x;k gSA


usikyh lekt] jktuhfr vkSj nfyr iz'u

*MkW0 vkdk'k xkSre

izLrqr 'kks/k esa usikyh lekt] jktuhfr vkSj nfyr iz'u dk ,sfrgkfld] fo'ys"k.kkRed i|fr;ksa ls v/;;u fd;k x;k gSA usiky esa fgUnwoknh o.kZ O;oLFkk dh 'kq:vkr dj 'kkld oxZ us ftl lekt dh jpuk dh mlds vafre ik;nku ij [kM+s leqnk; dks nfyr ds :i esa lEcksf/kr fd;k tkus yxkA o.kZ O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr ekuo tkfr ds fofHkUu leqnk;ksa dk fofHkUu dk;ksZ esa oxhZdj.k fd;k x;kA usiky esa iapk;r O;oLFkk ds uke ij funZyh; lhfer yksdra= esa jkt'kkgh dh 'kklu iz.kkyh dke djrh jgh usiky eas yksdrkaf=d psruk ds izpkj esa usiky ds f'kf{kr oxZ dh Hkwfedk jgh rFkk Lok/khurk] lekurk] HkkbZpkjs] tSls ewY;ksa dks vkRelkr djus eas l{ke jgkA jktuSfrd nyksa vkSj usiky dh turk us le; le; ij vkdzksf”r gksdj yksdra= dh cgkyh ds fy, la?k"kZ fd;kA izLrqr 'kks/k }kjk usikyh lekt] jktuhfr dh izd`fr vkSj nfyr iz'u dks le>us esa lgk;rk fey ldrh gSA

e/;dkyhu ,oa fcfz V'k dkyhu Hkkjrh; 'kklu O;oLFkk vkjS ipa k;rh jkt

*lquhy dqekj
e/;dkyhu Hkkjrh; 'kklu O;oLFkk vkSj iapk;rh jkt %&
Hkkjr es a ipa k;rh jkt O;oLFkk ;wukuh] bZjkuh] rqdZ 'kd] gw.k] Mp] rxq yd]
ykns h] f[kyth] xqyke vkjS eqxyka s vkfn fofHkUu fons'kh vkØe.kksa l s vkØkUr jgh gAS
fQj Hkh ipa k;r iz.kkyh dks dksbZ uqdlku ugh a igWpq k;kA fofHkUu 'kkldka s u s vius fgrksa
e as ipa k;rks a dk dkQh mi;ksx fd;kA eqlyekuka s us Hkkjr dh ijEijkxr xzke lLa Fkkvksa
dk mi;ksx djuk gh mfpr le>kA ijUr q elq yeku 'kkld dkuwu cukr s le; tkfr
fo'ks"k dk vf/kd /;ku nsrs FksA
lYrur dky esa lu~ 1206 bZ0 esa dqrqcqn~nhu ds 'kklu dh 'kq:vkr ls
ysdj lu 1526 bZ0 esa bczkfge yksnh ds 'kklu dh lekfIr rFkk eqxy lkezkT; dh
LFkkiuk rd fnYyh dk 'kklu lYrur dky dgykrk gSA bl nkSjku xqyke oa'k]
f[kyth oa'k] rqxyd oa'k] lS;;n oa'k] rFkk yksnh oa'k us fnYyh ij 'kklu fd;kA
bu lHkh eqfLye 'kkldksa dh lRrk esa bLyke /keZ rFkk 'kjh;r dk Li"V izHkko FkkA
blh le; l s rqdh]Z vjch rFkk Qkjlh bR;kfn Hkk"kkvksa dk Hkkjrh; 'kklu esa lekos'k
gvq kA vkt Hkh cgqr ls Qkjlh 'kCn U;k;ky;ksa rFkk iz'kklfud laLFkkvksa e sa cksys fy[ks
tkrs gSA lYrur dky esa 'kkld vius uke ls iwoZ lqYrku 'kCn yxkrs FksA lqYrku
ikz ;% /kkfedZ ] fujda q'k rFkk egRokdk{a kh ioz f` Rr d s gkrs s FksA

vk/kqfud fgUnh dfork esa ukjh psruk ¼”kks/k &i=½

*vkyksd jatu flag ;kno
vktknh ds igys vkSj vktknh ds ckn Hkh L=h ds vf/kdkjksa dh yM+kbZ dks
gs; n`f"V ls ns[kk x;kA e'khuksa ls [kkst&[kkstdj vk[ksV dh tkrh] twBu vkSj
cPks&[kqps Hkkstu ij iyrh] HkkbZ dks dej ij ykns cdfj;k¡ pjkrh] i<+us dh mez esa
ifr ,oa llqj ds ik¡Wo nckrh] ngst ds fy, tykbZ tkrh] ?kj vkSj ckgj cykRdkj
dh f'kdkj gksrh] ifr vkSj cPpkas ds fy, loZLo gkse dj nsus ds ckotwn fgalk vkSj
vieku >ys rh] NksVh&NkVs h bPNkvk sa d s fy, ;kpuk djrh vkjS gj vU;k; dks e;knZ k
vkSj ijEijk ds uke ij lgrh] ;s gekjs xk¡oksa vkSj "kgjksa ds yksd thou esa L=h dh
lcls vke rLohjsa gSaA ;s rLohjsa crkrh gaS fd og /kS;Z] thus dh vnE; ykylk vkSj
ekU;rk esa v[k.M fo'okl ds dkj.k cph gqbZ gSA ojuk ekSr dh ijNkbZ esa ?kqV&?kqV
dj thuk rk s mldh fu;fr g S ghA mldh bl fu;fr d s ifj.kke Lo:Ik L=h laxBu]
L=h vkUnksyu vkSj lkfgR; iSnk gqvkA **L=h laxBu ,oa psruk o`f) ds mik;ksa dks
fons'k ls vk;kfrr ?kksf"kr fd;k x;kA tcfd okLrfodrk ;g g S fd Hkkjr e sa L=h ds
vf/kdkjk as dk mn; LokHkkfod] lkekftd o jktufS rd l?a k"kk sZ ds nkjS ku gvq kA tk s i.w krZ %
ns'kh gSA**1 L=h dh fLFkfr lnSo ls ,slh ugha FkhA fofHkUu dkyksa es fL=;ksa dh fLFkfr
dk v/;;u djus ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd oSfnd dky esa Hkkjrh; fL=;ksa dh fLFkfr
mUur FkhA mUg sa lekt e as egŸoiw.k Z LFkku izkIr FkkA ifr&iRuh nksuka s feydj ;K dj
djrs FksA ih0,u0iHz k q ds 'kCnka s esa&**tgk¡ rd f'k{kk dk lEcU/k Fkk] L=h&iq:"k esa dkbs Z
Hksn ugha Fkk vkSj bl ;qx esa nksuksa dh lkekftd fLFkfr leku :Ik ls egŸoiw.kZ FkhA
mŸkj oSfnd dky dk le;1000 bZ0iw0 ls 500 bZ0iw0 rd ekuk tkrk gSA

nfyr lkfgR; vkjS Hkkjrh; lkekftd O;oLFkk

*;ksxs'k dqekj
nfyr lkfgR; dHkh gkf’k, dk y[s ku dgk tkrk Fkk] ija r q vkt lkfgR; dh
eq[;/kkjk cuus dh vksj vxzlj gSA nfyr lkfgR; dsoy lkfgR; dk ys[ku ugha gS
cfYd ;g nfyr psruk dh i`"BHkwfe dh cspSfu;ksa vkSj mlds izHkkoksa] vkUnksyuksa vkSj
jpukRedrkvksa dk lfoLrkj fo'ys"k.k Hkh gSA
nfyr lkfgR; ls ge lekt dk okLrfod v/;;u dj ldrs gSaA ;fn
nfyr lkfgR; ugha gksrk] rks 'kk;n ;g tkuuk vlaHko gksrk fd gekjk lkekftd
bfrgkl fdu ihMk+ vks]a rdyhQk]sa vU;k;ksa] 'kk"s k.kksa vkjS vleukrkvk sa dk bfrgkl jgk
gSA nfyr lkfgR; yksdrkaf=d vkSj ckSf)d rkSj ij fodflr gksrs lekt dk ,d
etcwr vk/kkj LrEHk gSA lkekftd vR;kpkj] vU;k; vkSj 'kks"k.k dsfUnzr vekuoh;
Hkns Hkko okys o.kZoknh] nk'kfZ ud vkjS ikjS kf.kd rRokKku dh prs uk dk s isez pUn]z egkRek
xk/a kh] fujkyk vkfn dh jpuk, a fgyk ugha ik;h] ml s vEcsndj oknh n'kZu vkjS jpuk,a
gh /oLr dj ldhA vekuoh; mRihM+u vkSj neu dh ;g vkokt ejkBh] dUuM+]
ey;kye] dkdsa .kh] dPNh] ita kch] fgUnh vkjS vU; Hkk"kkvk sa esa mRdafBr gqbZ vkjS fQj
blus nfyr lkfgR; vkanksyu dk #i ys fy;kA vr% ;g 'kr~ izfr'kr ekuoh; vkSj
lkekftd gSA

HEALTH Seeking Behavior among the Kalazar Affected People of the Scavenger (Methor) Community in Bogra District of Bangladesh

*Md. Nasir Uddin
**Dr. Md. Aminul Islam
**Mst. Maksuda Khatun
Abstract: Health seeking behavior refers the
strategy that people employ to decide which option they
will use at which stages of their illness. The present paper
describes the health seeking behavior among the Kalazar
affected people of the scavenger community of Bogra
district. The qualitative research methods have adopted
in this study. For the reliability and objectivity of data,
cross-checking and triangulation techniques have
applied. As this paper is on the health seeking behavior
as well as its causes and nature, it will obviously be helpful
for the development planners and policy makers to take
essential steps for the scavenger community to improve
their health care system.

Tradition and Trends of Reservation in Pre Independence India

*Dr. Rajkumar Singh
The reservation system has received a mixed
response from Indians since its inception. It has been
praised for diminishing the gap between the upper and
lower castes by allowing the latter to enjoy the further
increased opportunities as the former in jobs, education
and governance by alloting seats exclusively for them.
It has also been criticised for discouraging a merit- based
system and encouraging vote bank politics. From
centuries, India is the homeland of people who are
different to each other on the basis of language,
religion, caste, race and community. The exploitation
and deprivation of one section by other is the outcome
of strict social division and prejudice. As a result, a large
section of Indians have been identified as under
privileged, backward and deprived.1 Reservation in
India is the process of setting aside a certain percentage
of seats in government institutions for members of
backward and under- represented communities. It is
governed by constitutional laws, statutory laws, and
local rules and regulations. Initially the system of
reservation was put in place by the British over the
objection of the nationalist movement, but in time it
was embraced by Congress and virtually by all political
parties in India. Subsequently, the reservation provision
was incorporated into the Indian Constitution along

Gaps in Facilities Available at Health Sub- Centers in Warangal District of Telangana State

*Dr. K. Anil Kumar
In India since independence a great deal of
development and expansion has occurred in the health
services infrastructure and various parameters of health
have improved considerably.While there has been some
improvement for Scheduled Tribes (STs) in government
sectors, public jobs, and education institutions (Xaxa
V:2001). But the role of population health interventions
in improving the situation for STs has received relatively
little attention. In the State of Andhra Pradesh most of
the primary health centers (PHCs) and sub-centers did
not function for 24 hours. Nearly 50-60% of the PHCs
lack of medical officers and other support staff like staff
nurse, Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANMs), health
assistants, pharmacist, and lab technicians etc. Almost
50% of PHCs did not have facilities like apparatus and
medicines (Praveen Nirmalan, B.R. Shamanna, and S.
Saravanan: 2011). And tribal populations generally have
poor health outcomes, often because of a healthcare
delivery system that does not cater to their needs.
It is in this context the present study was

Tribal Economy: A case study of Gujjar tribe of District Doda of Jammu and Kashmir.

*Abdul Hafiz
The present study was investigated at tehsil
Bhaderwah and tehsil Gandoh of Doda district of Jammu
and Kashmir. For the study a total sample of 40
households of settled Gujjars were selected from both
tehsils in equal number through purposive sampling
technique. From these selected areas the Data was
collected from the co-researchers by structured selfmade
scheduled questionnaire and deep interviews. It
was depicted from the present study that most of the
respondents of elite class have left their traditional way
of earning of livelihood due to the adverse impact of
Modernization and it was also found that the Gujjars
who have low income are dependent on these milk
products for their livelihood.

Decentralized Governance; Forest Land Allotment for STs and Tradition Forest Dwellers: A Study of Marvahi&Gorella Block(C.G.).

*Vikram Singh
‘This paper attempts to study the Decentralization
process its elements, process its conceptual and theoretical
understanding. It also based on the assumption that Decentralized
Governance –towards Forest Resources Governance frameworks
leave a lot of scope for reforms as the gaps prevail which weaken
implementation addressed under Forest Right Act. The paper also
aspires to look into the process towards Forest Land Allotment
for STs and Tradition Forest Dwellers and their linkages with
governance institutions which have not been able to sufficiently
create /address/promote the well-being process and livelihood.
It also look into the Distinctive nature of FRA against the dominant
forces of State and the nature of relationships of NGOS leading
towards collective interests and norms that shape the quality
and quantity of Tribes and Other Tradition Forest Dwellers within
society. Methodological considerations, objectives, findings and
conclusion have been also discussed.

Culture, Life and Change among the Santal Tribe of Odisha: An Overview

*Dr. Sambit Kumar Padhi
The state Odisha occupies a prominent space in the
tribal map of India. There are as many sixty-two varieties of
tribes in this state out of which Santal constitute a major share of
the tribal population. Santals are well known for their culture,
tradition and social laws. Their settlement pattern, food habits,
marriage and child rearing practices, dress, ornaments, beliefs
and worships, occupation, customary practices and folk traditions
are different from other tribes. It was not possible to touch all
aspects of Santal life rather an attempt has been made to highlight
some of the major aspects of their lives. The sole objective of the
paper is to highlight the past and present scene of Santals in
context of traditionalism and modernity. Mattes presented in
the paper are the outcomes of the understanding of author about
the Santal tribe through some of the informal interactions and
observations. Observation reveals that Santals of Odisha are no
more confined within their own villages. Their mobility and
interaction with mainstream population have been increasing
due to expansion of market mechanism and employment
opportunities, outside their own locations. They have started to
step up in all activates including higher education also. All these
tend to indicate that they are on the way towards the mainstream
of life.

Caste Based Discrimination in Welfare Services: A Question of Social Justice

*Ajeet Kumar Pankaj
Caste as aaccustomed social and economic
system of society, based on hierarchical nature, is the
cause of existed social strain in
Indian population suffer the acutest problem of
discrimination and exclusion in every sphere of society
the various government affirmative action and
welfare services among them and the question of social
justice remains. Various welfare programmes are
not reach to Dalits. It is the discriminatory nature of local
administration and political dominance of upper castes,
which keeps Dalits away from most of the welfare
services that resulted in injustice with Dalits.

Ambedkar: An Oppressed Intellectual

*Dr. Saraswati Kumari
Ambedkar was born Bhimrao on April 14, 1891 at Mhow in
central India in an austere and religious Mahar family with a military
service background and unusual respect for education. In school
Satara and Bombay college, service under the maharaja of Baroda
briefly in 1913 and again between July and November 1917 and
study abroad (Columbia university, the London school of economics,
Gray’s Inn, the University of Bonn) the young man displayed a
scholarly orientation, a commitment to the life of mind and wellhoned
intellectual gifts that few other contemporary political
leaders of the Era could match.

Dr. B.R. Ambedker’s ideas on social justice in Indian society

*Raghavendra R.H
Social justice is the spirit and vision of Indian
Constitution. It is the duty of the state to secure a social order in
which the legal system of the nation promote justice on a basis
of equal opportunity and in particular ensure that opportunities
for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of
economic or other disabilities. In this way this paper made an
attempt to realize Ambedker ideas on social justice in Indian
society through understanding the clear concept of social justice
and how traditional Hindu society social justice was prevailed.
Thereafter it is focused on Ambedker struggle and ideas on social
justice in Indian context and finally relevance of Ambedker social
justice for the present context.


izks- rqylhjke ¼tUe 01-07-1947 & egkifjfuokZ.k 13-02-2015½
(Centre for Russsia & central Asian studeies, JNU, New Delhi)
Organized by Dr. Amarnath Paswan
Editor, Indian Journal of Dalit and Tribal studies & Asstt. Professor Asstt. Director
Centre for the study of social Exclusion and inclusive policy, FSS, BHU, Varanasi
vk;kstd eaMy& lkfgy oekZ] iIiw dqekj ;kno] vk”kqrks’k izlkn] vkyksd dqekj] lwjt oekZ] vuqie dUukSft;kA
oDrkx.k& izks- pkSFkhjke ;kno] izks- dk”kh ukFk flag] izks- nhid efyd] izks- vkj- vkj- >k] izks- vkuUn nhik;u] MkW izeksn okxMs] MkW jkgqy jkt] Jh lquhy dqekj] Jh lqjs”k izrki] iIiw dqekj ;kno] lkfgy oekZ] vkyksd dqekj] >cywjke] iou flag] vk”kqrks’k flag] Jh jksfgr oekZA
LFky& izks- gfjgjukFk f=ikBh lHkkxkj] lkekftd foKku ladk;] dk”kh fgUnw fo”ofo|ky;] okjk.klh


Hkkjrh; ,oa ik”pkR; nksauks n”kZuksa esa euq’; ds d’V] ihM+k] nq%[k ,oa leL;kvksa dh foLr`r #i ls foospuk dh x;h gS] tSls Hkkjrh; n”kZu esa vkfnnSfod] vkfnHkkSfrd] vk/;kfRed rFkk lkekftd nq%[k vkSj ik”pkR; n”kZu esa “kks’k.k] vU;k;] HksnHkko vkfn dh uhfr;ksa ij vk/kkfjr lkekftd ,oa jktuSfrd O;oLFkk ds dkj.k mRiUu “kkjhfjd]ekufld ,oa lkekftd nq%[k vkfnA nksuksa n”kZuksa esa bu nq%[kksa ds lek/kku gsrq vius&vius lek/kku izLrqr fd;s x;s gSA tgka ik”pkR; n”kZu esa ekuo ds nq%[kksa dks nwj djus gsrq cqf)] rdZ] foKku ,oa fgalk ij vk/kkfjr lektokn ,oa lkE;okn dks lk/ku ,oa ekxZ ds #i esa fy;k x;k gS] ogha Hkkjrh; n”kZu esa bu nq%[kksa dks nwj djus gsrq vfgalk ,oa uSfrdrk ds vkn”kksZ ij vk/kkfjr yksdrkfU=d ewY;ksa dks ekxZ ds :Ik esa fy;k x;k gS] tSls %& tSu n”kZu dk uSfrd ekxZ] cq) dk v’Vkax ekxZ] lka[;&;ksx dk ;ksx ekxZ] xhrk dk deZ ekxZ] “kadjkpk;Z dk Kku ekxZ] jkekuqt dk HkfDr ekxZ rFkk MkW0 vEcsMdj dk /kEe ekxZ vkfnA


lekt yksxksa dk lewg gS tks fuf'pr dkjdks tSls lkekftd izfLFkfr] Hkwfedk vkSj lkekftd usVodZ ds vk/kkj ij ,d nwljs ls tqM+s jgrs gSaA xk¡oksa ls 'kgjksa esa yksxksa dk iyk;u yksxksa ds lkekftd] vkfFkZd ,oa jktuSfrd igyqvksa ij vlj Mkyrk gSaA xk¡o ls uxj dh vksj izLFkku] ,d uxj ls nwljs uxj dks izLFkku] fuokl LFkku laca/kh ifjorZu] dk;ZLFky laca/kh ifjorZu] ,d lkekftd oxZ ls nwljs lkekftd oxZ esa izos'k vkfn xfr'khyrk ds ifjpk;d mnkgj.k gSaA

vidhi ka sasan narivadi paripeksh se ek sawal

ledkyhu ukjhokn ?kj ds Hkhrj vkSj ckgj ds {ks=ksa esa efgykvkas ds thou vkSj 'kjhj ij mudh viuh Lok;rrk ds vf/kdkj rFkk efgykvksa ds fy, Lora=rk] lekurk vkSj xfjek dks izkIr djus ds fy, la?k"kZ dj jgk gSA ;g fir`lÙkkRed lajpukvksa dks pqukSrh ns jgk gSA fir`lÙkkRed O;oLFkk esa ifjokj ds lHkh lnL;ksa] lHkh laifÙk ij firk( ;k ifr) dk fu;a=.k gksrk gS vkSj lHkh egRowi.kZ fu.kZ; ogh ysrs gSaA ;g O;oLFkk bl fopkj/kjk ij vk/kkfjr gS fd iq:"k efgyk ls loksZPp gSA

Barriers to Access Health Care in Stone Breakers’ Community of Shankargarh Block in Allahabad District in Uttar Pradesh

Shatabdi Bagchi*
Ravindra Tripathi**
Ambalika Sinha***
India’s unorganized sector and poor people have worse health indicators than the general population which makes them vulnerable. Especially the tribal people from unorganized sector; who don’t have a stable source of livelihood and living in remote rural hamlets. Illiteracy, malnutrition, acute poverty, inadequate provisioning of health care services and basic amenities, increases the vulnerability among them. This is compounded by the lack of awareness about Public Health care facilities and services among these populations, distant medical facilities, lack of all-weather roads and affordable transportation, insensitive and discriminatory behaviour by staff at medical facilities, financial constraints and so on. These socio–economic factors or barriers often increase the inaccessibility of health care services among these populations. Barriers in accessing public health care system force them to

Barriers to Access Health Care in Stone Breakers’ Community of Shankargarh Block in Allahabad District in Uttar Pradesh

Shatabdi Bagchi*
Ravindra Tripathi**
Ambalika Sinha***
India’s unorganized sector and poor people have worse health indicators than the general population which makes them vulnerable. Especially the tribal people from unorganized sector; who don’t have a stable source of livelihood and living in remote rural hamlets. Illiteracy, malnutrition, acute poverty, inadequate provisioning of health care services and basic amenities, increases the vulnerability among them. This is compounded by the lack of awareness about Public Health care facilities and services among these populations, distant medical facilities, lack of all-weather roads and affordable transportation, insensitive and discriminatory behaviour by staff at medical facilities, financial constraints and so on. These socio–economic factors or barriers often increase the inaccessibility of health care services among these populations. Barriers in accessing public health care system force them to



This paper identifies key knowledge gaps on the issue of migration through the changing concept of humanity in present era. First we need to understand how the pattern of migration changes and the migrants face the difficulties at the destinations .secondly we need to understand that the adjustment of human beings in the urban cities feel alianation.Thirdly we do not fully understand the extent to which rural –urban migration contributes to the phenomenon of urbanisation of poverty. And finally, we need to understand the legal and structural impediments to migration.

Caste based Violence in Social Structure: Rural Dalit Women’s Perspective

Resham Lal1
Women are even more affected section than the men by caste-based discrimination and violence, they are not only discriminated upon from a caste-based perspective but also facing discrimination based on gender and socio-economic factors. The caste system is intrinsically hierarchical and its heart incorporates elements of domination and exclusion over women, and gender inequality is bound up with patriarchy and power in social structure. Moreover, continuously has been practiced intergenerational nature of caste-based discrimination and violence condemns women to a life of exclusion, marginalization and disadvantage in every spheres of life. Before going to detail discussion on the topic, We try to understand who are and where from derived the term of Dalit. Dalit is a term for a group of people (s) those who traditionally regarded as untouchable and are not only considered as untouchable but also deprived of their basic right to life. According to ancient Indian caste structure, they basically are those people which does not belong to any of the four castes i.e. Brahmin, Kshayatriya, Vaishya, Sudhras.

Social Exclusion and Dalits in Contemporary India: Some Reflections

Bibekananda Nayak
Assistant Professor &
Doleswar Bhoi
Research Associate

In India social exclusion is practiced on the base of caste, religion, region, language and untouchability. Social exclusion can be described where a group of people being excluded or denial of the rights and opportunities which the majority enjoys. The exclusion has made the Dalits as vulnerable community since from the Vedic time. It is observed from the various study that 25.7%of the village Dalits are prevented from entering ration shops. 33% of the village public health workers refuse to visit Dalits homes, 14.4% of the village Dalits are not permitted to enter Panchayat building,. 48.4% of the Dalits are denied to access to water sources. 64% of Dalits restricted from entering Hindu temples. It shows that people participation or dalits participation in the life world has denied accessing the resources. The case is the major criteria for exclusion in Indian society. It can be solved through the government law enforcement and people initiative towards inclusion.

Discrimination and beyond

Sartik Bagh
Dalits in India have suffered centuries of discrimination, victimisation and marginalisation in every aspect of life. Dr. B. R Ambedkar's struggle against caste system in India and later on, his contribution to the making of the constitution came in handy in a bigger way to overcome the indignity, disadvantages and hardship associated with caste system in India. Besides others, abolition of practice of untouchability, provision of affirmative action in government services and educational institutions, right to vote etc have played an instrumental role to make dalit community part of mainstream society. However, in contemporary period also, there is no end to discrimination. In conformity with the constitution of India, dalits have found ways and means to take on world by resorting to various emancipatory strategies like conversion, identity politics, dalit entrepreneurship, preference for English medium education and role of dalit intelligentia. The paper would reflect upon the extent to which these strategies have played their part in overcoming the age old caste -based discrimination and marginalisation in the society.

Nutrition and Socially Excluded Communities:

Bibhuti Bhushan Malik*
Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) occupy 21 per cent of total population of Uttar Pradesh. The state consists of 22.58 per cent and 0.67 per cent of SC and ST children respectively in age of 0-6 year having 15 per cent children of total state population. Prevalence of stunting is much higher in SC (60 per cent) and ST (68 per cent) than it is in the general category (48 per cent). Children in the lowest income groups are two times more stunted than children in the highest income groups. Prevalence of wasting is highest in ST followed by SC population. Prevalence of underweight is higher in ST followed by female and SC population. Children in lowest income groups are more than twice underweight than children in the highest income group. Tribal household children in age of 6 to 59 month are doubly thin than children born to other household. IMR for lower income group is more (94.2) than IMR for the highest income group (51.3). Children in lowest income group die two time more before completing 5 year than children in highest income groups.

Empowerment of Scheduled Castes Women..........

*Narayana Billava
Empowerment of women is essentially the process of
strengthening the economic, social and political status of women in
society. One major intervention used by women empowerment
promoters is to empower women through the panchayat raj and
thereby ensure participation in political decision making. The
seventy third constitutional amendments is a milestone towards
women empowerment; this reserved 33 percent of the Panchayat
seats (increased to 50 per cent recently in some states) for women.
Due to this, large number of women, especially of deprived groups
like the scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST) has entered
Panchayats for the first time. Efforts have been made to empower the
Gram Panchayat women representatives through imparting many
different types of training. One such training programme was
conducted by CMDR especially for the SC representatives of the
Gram Panchayat of Dharwad taluk, Dharwad, Karnataka. This paper
tries to present the socio-economic profile of these SC women
representatives, their motivating factors for participation in
panchayat activates and an analysis of their political empowerment
through gram panchayats. It looks at whether this programme has
increased awareness among SC representatives of their role and
responsibility, and of issues concerning women empowerment,
finance, and other programmes of the Gram Panchayat.

Human Rights Discourse, Indigenous Issue and

*Apam Muivah
The discourse of human rights on indigenous people has been
quite a neglected area until very recent times. The discourse has
now transcended into various walks of life cutting across disciplinary
boundaries. In fact, the indigenous peoples’ issue has been
increasingly acknowledged as symbolizing an imperative human
rights issue and an important agenda of conflict transformation.
Estimated to be around 300 million or more, indigenous peoples
living in different parts of the continents, their histories and
concerns pre-date colonialism and they are considered to be the
most disadvantaged peoples. They are generally recognized by the
pejorative terms such as ‘Aborigines’, ‘Autochthones’, ‘Tribals’ or
‘Red Indians’. Whatever may be the term, they give precedence to
self-identification as ‘Indigenous Peoples’. The use of the term
‘indigenous communities’, ‘peoples’ and ‘nations’ by Martínez
(1972) in a UN report is strikingly prominent for its usages in the
first two definitions as ‘indigenous populations’. Reference to
indigenous people in the last two to three decades (or even four)
were mentioned as interest of botanical works on indigenous plants
in Journal articles, popular magazines and newspapers (Ronald
2003:2-3). However, prior to the 1970s, their issues were “generally
considered as part of a broader focus on human rights problems
such as forced labour, slavery or through a focus on human rights

Marginalisation of Tribal Communities due to

*Neelmani Jaysawal & Sudeshna Saha
The Globalization has various dimensions which sometimes affect
tribal communities positively and sometimes negatively. Since the
emergence of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG),
the areas inhabited by tribal population have been subject to
various protests due to involuntary displacement. Due to neoliberal
economy, the arena of development has turned into unipolar.
In the name of upgradation of lifestyle of poor indigenous tribal
people, the market forces have created wealth for their interests at
the cost of livelihood and security of these tribes in the areas. The
mainstream globalization model of development promotes the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP) neglecting the inclusive growth of
economy. According to the World Bank, development projects every
year involuntarily displace one million people in the developing
countries from their land and homes (World Bank, 1994). In India
alone, between 1951 and 1990 around 21.3 million persons were
displaced by development projects. Among this number 8.54 million
(40 per cent) were tribal or indigenous people and only 2.12 million
(24.8 per cent) were resettled (Government of India, 2002: 458).
Therefore, there has been created a major rift between the elites
and grass root tribal people. The regions inhabited by tribal people
are facing wrath of not only economic exploitation but
environmental degradation due to excessive extraction of resources.
The process of effective rehabilitation for Project affected persons
has been in dillydallying phase of implementation. The reform
process has affected the indigenous communities of India,
particularly their culture, languages and style of life.
This paper studies the adverse impact of globalization on the

Dalit Woman Oppression: An Unsolved Issue In

*Ishrat Jahan
The present paper focuses on Dalit Woman Oppression: An
Unsolved Issue In India after 67 years of Independence with some
case study as evidence. Violence shatters hopes of women for justice
and thereby reinforces their excluded socio-economic and political
status and subjugation. In Modern times, females, who are the victims
of Rape, mostly belong to Dalit Community. Dalit women are
threatened by rape as part of collective violence by the higher castes.
Sometimes sexual assault and rape of Dalit women and girls also
occur within their own communitiy. Oppression and rape of women
could be a way to compensate for their own lack of power in society.
The Devadasi system of temple prostitution is the most extreme form
of exploitation of Dalit women. Dalit girls are forced to prostitution.
Dalit women are victims of social, religious and cultural practices like
Devdasis and Jogins. This article is based on “Bathani Tola Massacre
Case” of Patna, Bihar, Northern Part of India where most of women
lost their families. It can be a valuable study from new perspective
and would be helpful to understand them. In Marxist perspective
each oppressed social group should organize separately to liberate
itself. The spirit of liberation should come from withn; Dalits liberating
Dalits, women liberating women, and so on.

Baba Saheb Dr. Ambedkar Ka Samvidhan Sabha Ka Safarnama

*Sanjay Gajbhiye
*lat; xtfHk,*
egkizk.k tksxsUnzukFk eaMy dk dk;Z dsoy caxky izkar rd gh lhfer ugha Fkk
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djus ds fy, ,sfrgkfld Lo:Ik dk dk;Z fd;kA tksxsUnzukFk eaMy ds dkj.k gh
Mk-W vkca Ms dj lfa o/kku lHkk e sa igWpqa ik,] rFkk fo”oizfl) lafo/kku fy[kdj ^Hkkjrh;
lafo/kku ds fuekZrk* ds rkSj ij izflf) ik,A blds ihNs dh Hkwfedk tkuus ds fy,
tkxs Us nzukFk eMa y }kjk Mk-W vkca Ms dj dk s lfa o/kku lHkk e as Hkts u s d s fy, fd, x, dk;Z
dks /;ku esa ysuk vko”;d gSA

Munshi PremChand Ki Kahaniyo me Dalit vimarsh : Vartaman Paridrishya

*Shiv Lal Singh Yadav
** Rajendra Prasad
*f”koyky flag ;kno
**jktsUnz izlkn
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gq, dbZ tkus&ekus ys[kd vkSj lekykspd Hkh bl {ks= esa dwn iM+s gSa vkSj Lo;a dks
nfyr lkfgR; dk izoDrk fl) djus esa rRijrk ls tqV x;s gSaA ;g vyx l s fparu
dk fo’k; gS fd os nfyrksa dh ihM+k dks vius ân; dh xgjkbZ;ksa ls fdruk eglwl
fd;s gS vkSj mlds ;FkkFkZ ls fdruh xgjkbZ rd tqM+s gSaA vkt nfyrksa ds fgrksa ,oa
vf/kdkjk as dk s yds j mBu s okyh vkoktk as dk eYw ;kda u vko”;d g]S dgh a o s FkkFs kk izyki
vkjS xky ctkuk rk s ughAa bl ckr e as dgh a u dgh a lPpkbZ g]S ;gh dkj.k g S fd nfyr
tkfr ds ys[kd tgka dsoy vius }kjk l`ftr lkfgR; dks gh nfyr&lkfgR; ds
vUrxZr ekurs g aS D;kfas d ;g lkfgR; muds }kjk Hkksx s x; s ;FkkFkZ ,o a lPph vuqHkwfr;kas
ij vk/kkfjr gSA tcfd ogha xSj nfyr ys[kd bls nfyr laonsuk dk lkfgR; dgrs
g S vkjS bl nfyr loa ns uk dk s vfHkO;Dr dju s okyh izR;ds jpuk dk s o s nfyr lkfgR;
d s vUrxZr j[kr s gSA nfyr ifjis{; e sa bl s loZ.k ekufldrk dh n`f’V l s n[s kk tkrk
g S vkjS blh dkj.k fiNys dqN le; l s e”qa kh izes pUnz dk s Hkh nfyr&y[s kd ekuk tkus
yxk gAS tcfd ,ls k ugh a g]S izsepUnz nfyrk as dh leL;kvk sa d s lkFk&lkFk ukjh foe’kZ]
fdlkuksa dh leL;k,a] dkexkjksa dh leL;k,a] ”kgjh thou dh nq:grkvksa ij Hkh
lexzrk ls viuh ys[kuh pykbZ gSA blfy, eqa”kh izsepUnz dks laonsu”khy ys[kd
ekurs gq, mUgsa nfyr laosnuk dk ys[kd gh ekuuk vf/kd lehphu gksxkA

Samajik Parivaratan Aur Dayiversity

*,p-,y- nqlk/k
ekuo lekt ifjorZu”khy gS tSls fd ifjorZu”khy lexz l`f’V gSA dUnjkoklh
voLFkk l s ekuo dk mUur lH;rk Lrj rd dk vkjkgs .k rk s vkjS dqN ugh]a èkkjkokfgd
ifjorZu dh voLFkk ek=k gAS lekt vkfn dky l s gh viu s fuR; u; s iz;kts u
ls ,d ds ckn ,d laLÑfr] izFkk] vFkZuhfr] ”kklu O;oLFkkfn dh lajpuk dks tUe
nsrk vk;k gS vkSj ;gh lc fey tqydj ifjorZu dk dkjd curs gSaA ,d O;oLFkk
d s iz;kts u dh lekfIr ij nlw jh O;oLFkk mldk LFkku xzg.k djrh jgh gAS lkekftd
O;oLFkkfn dk ;g :i ifjorZu vra ea s fodkl o mUu;u d s :i esa gksrk gSA
fdUrq flQZ :ikUrj.k ugh]a ifjorZu tc mPprj ls fuEurj voLFkk e sa iMs + yksxksa ds
thou esa lq[kn cnyko ykus esa l{ke gksrk gS] ogh lkekftd ifjorZu izxfr ;k
fodkl ds :i e sa fo”yfs ’kr gksrk gAS ^bl fglkc l s Hkkjr ea s mUu;uewyd lkekftd
ifjoruZ ml ifjoruZ dk s gh dgk tk ldrk g S tk s ;gk a dh ijia jkxr vkfFkZd forj.k
O;oLFkk ¼o.kZ&O;oLFkk½ esa forj.k&”kwU;rk (Non-distribution) dk f”kdkj cuh
cgqla[;d vkcknh dks jk’Vª ds thou ds izR;sd {ks=k esa mldh fgLlsnkjh ysus dh
{kerk vkjS ;kXs ;rk vtuZ o ml s dju s dh vikj] vckèk izfr;kfs xrk dk volj
lqyHk djk ldAs ,ls k ifjorZu tk s fuEu o.kZ e as vofLFkr gtkjka s tkfr;k as d s yksxk sa dks
mPpo.kZ okyk as dh Hkkfa r lekt d s lHkh lq[k lqfoèkkvk as d s Hkkxs dk vfèkdkjh cuk ldAs
nwljs ”kCnksa esa sub-stream esa iM+s yksxksa dks Main-Stream

Bhartiya Media : Dalito ka Sarokar

*Sunil Kumar
fgUnw o.kZ O;oLFkk esa nfyr tkfr gtkjksa o"kksaZ rd vLi`'; ¼vNwr½ le>h tkus
okyh mu reke tkfr;ksa ds fy, lkewfgd :i ls ç;qDr gksrk gS] tks fganw lekt
O;oLFkk e as lcl s fupy s ik;nku ij gAS Hkkjr dh loa /S kkfud Hkk"kk e as bUg as gh vuqlfw pr
tkfr dgk x;k gSA Hkkjr dh tula[;k e sa yxHkx 16 çfr'kr vkcknh nfyrk sa dh gAS
nfyr 'kCn dk 'kkfCnd vFkZ gS& nyu fd;k gqvkA blds rgr og gj O;fä

Panchayat ( Anusuchit ......

*Manish Chandra

nfyr lkfgR; dh vo/kkj.kk

*Dr. Ajay Kumar Paswan

v”kksd fot;kn”keh dk czkã.khdj.k

*Dr. Vijay Kumar 'Trisharan'

1857 ds fonzksg dh lQyrk dk jgL;ksn~?kkVu bfrgkl ys[ku ds n`f’Vdks.k ls

*Dr. Avdhesh Arya

uDlyokn] vkfnoklh fgalk vkSj ekuokf/kdkj

*Jaydev Pandey

Hkkjrh; jktuhfr ,oa nfyr usr`Ro % ,d fo'ys"k.k

*Akash Gautam
**Ajay Kumar

fgUnh&rsYkqxq dfork esa nfYkr psruk

*Dr. G.V. Ratnakar

Subaltern Studies: A Historical Perspective and Emergence In India.

*Devaki Nandan Mishra
The emergence of the word, ‘subaltern’ can be traced out from its original meaning in army a person of a lower rank. This concept was used by western thinkers to look at the society from the different angle and perspective being that of the bottom to up of society. The society till then was understood from the elite class point of view but now it took lower or the other strata of society to understand the society. Marx and Gramsci can be regarded as main proponents of this perspective to understand the society. In this paper emergence of Subaltern word and Subaltern studies where the former was developed in by the Western thinkers whereas the latter one is credited to the Indian thinkers like Ranjit Guha and others. The Subaltern studies started with the simple concept of the ‘Dalit’, in the Indian caste system. In the concluding part of the paper I have tried to bring out how the world wide scenarios like globalization how it has a profound impact on the Subaltern studies making it more complex and wider in aspects as the complexities and acculturation of cultures are taking place because of the shrinking of boundaries amongst countries because of growth in technology and globalization which I mentioned .

Thoughts of Gandhi and Ambedkar on Hinduism

*Dr. Saraswati Kumari
Indian society has along and continuous history extended over five thousand years which is based on doctrines and ideas developed indigenously. Hinduisms is way life which has found noble expression in classical and modern literature of Indian history. The culture developed by faith in Hinduism is an important landmark in Indian history. A nations by – gone age may lose much of their validity today. Indian culture is no exception to this general rule. In the changed circumstances of today for instance the concept of Varna and Ashrama on which Hinduism is based have perennial claim to validity which has become a conflicting ideology. This paper is based on this very conflicting view about Hinduism especially in reference to Gandhi and Ambedkar.

Survey on Manual Scavengers: Critical Evaluation and Policy Exploration

*Dr. Shiv Prakash Katiyar
The abhorrent position of manual scavengers is well known to everyone in India. Their work is inhumane and highly discriminated in the society. A number of welfare measures have been initiated by the government as well as nongovernmental organizations, but their position couldn’t be improved substantially. Even today, they are bound to spend a disgraceful life. The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition Act, 1993) haven’t been able to find any victim in a relatively long span of twenty years in spite of continuance of this practice. Following the lacunas in this act, the Government of India has introduced ‘The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Bill, 2012’ in the Lok Sabha on September3, 2012. Before passing it by the parliament in order to make it an Act, presently the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India is conducting a survey on manual scavengers for mapping their socio-economic, educational and occupational status. The survey aimed at providing some empirical insights for a suitable policy as well as welfare programmes to address the required issues. Since inclusive development agenda has become the important focus from the 11th five year plan onwards, there is a need to address lacunas and needs in a larger context. In this direction, while doing the survey, the concept of inclusive development has to be focused upon to address the actual needs of the manual scavengers.

Social Exclusion & SC & ST Teachers in Delhi University

*Dr. Raj Kumar
"It is the education which is the right weapon to cut the social slavery and it is the education which will enlighten the downtrodden masses to come up and gain social status, economic betterment and political freedom." Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.


*Barkha Singh
** Dr. Rani Singh
Education system should make an individual better suited to the needs of the ever changing dynamic world. The changes in the educational system should also reduce the social gaps by enabling proper recognition to whatever extent one is able to pursue a skill. The tribal community all over India have been subjected to various forms of deprivation such as alienation from land and other resources. Especially the tribal girls though they are away from the main stream of national life, but they are not kept away from the impact of socio – economic changes effecting the society in general. In this process of change, the tribal girl is forced to adhere to certain norms which may even take away her freedom, her control over the traditional productive system, her house, family and children and even her own life. The fact remains that a large number of tribal Girls have missed education at different stages and in order to empower them there is a great need of providing opportunities so as to enable them to assume leadership qualities for economic self-reliance and even social transformation. Earlier Government had no direct programme for their education. But in the subsequent years the reservation policy has made some changes. There are many reasons for low level of education among the tribal Girl: formal education is not considered necessary to discharge their social obligations. Thestitions and myths play an important role in rejecting education. most tribes live in abject poverty. It is not easy for them to send their children to schools, as they are considered extra helping hands.

Culture at Stake: Schooling and Identity Formation among Tribals

*Ajay Samir Kujur
**Md. Jawaid Hussain
Each society profess a particular way of life (culture) distinguished from each other by the uniqueness of the patterns of social interactions, people’s behavior and beliefs and desire to preserve it by educating its younger generation in its culture. Untill few centuries back almost all society used informal agencies (family, community etc.) for the purpose. However, with the advancement of civilization formal institution called ‘school’ has taken up the task of transmitting culture. Thus, society, culture, education, and school are closely related and inter-depended. Culture in a way determines the identity of individual (social identity). School as an agency of cultural transmission form or deform the identity of individuals. Tribal communities in India underdeveloped due to various reasons are perceived as backward, animistic, lacking culture of education. Their culture is seen as the barriers to education. However, we forget the fact that the tribals in India are being educated in dominant Indian culture. Thus, there is need to relook at the education provided for tribal communities and redesign so that they become educated Indian with a distinct cultural identity.

Dalits and Inclusive growth

* Raghavendra R.H
**Jairam Kumar Paswan
India’s social and economic spheres by introducing the lens of ‘inclusion’ to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the issue. This paper highlights the present Dalits Population, Sex ratio, literacy rate and work participation and discusses the 11th five year plans vision, loopholes and institutional suggestion for more inclusive growth of Dalits. The conditions of India’s main oppressed and marginalised sections of society who – by and large – have for thousands of years – remained neglected and ignored in the social milieu. The dalits have suffered cumulative domination, protested several sources of deprivation, political powerlessness, exploitation and poverty. Economic and social “welfare measures”, along with political reforms have tried to address vital issues in dalit resurgence. Despite political empowerment dalits live in situations of social discrimination, physical violence and abject poverty. Around 50 per cent of the quantum of welfare measures is still unfulfilled. The focus now needs to be on dalit emancipation, rights and inclusive growth.


*Dr. Rajesh Kumar Chaudhary


*Resham Lal


Dr. Pramod Kumar Bagde


*Prof. Sadanand Shahi

Contribution of E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker to the Discourse of Caste in Modern India

*Dr. A. Gangatharan
Intellectual History as a discipline committed to the study of ideas and movements, analyses the role of social function, i.e., in bringing social transformation by effecting appropriate changes on the society. E.V.Ramaswamy Naiker (1879-1974), one of the ardent champions of social equality, made an indelible yeomen service in launching crusade against the praxis of caste tyranny and social prejudices. This paper seeks to explain the main contours of E.V.Ramaswamy Naiker’s social ideas as expounded and executed by him in the colonial and post colonial context. As a staunch rationalist and non-conformist, he envisaged a social ambiance free from all discriminatory practices cutting across caste community and social status, and endeavoured to establish a society based-on humanitarian values. He was one of the organic intellectuals who not only propagated the idea of egalitarianism but also galvanised a large section of the people to bring change in the society through his programmes. Using Sudrahood as an organising concept he had radicalised the anti-caste activism, what may be called as ‘non-Brahmin” movement, by valorising the ‘supra-local identities’. E.V.R was one of the sterling thinkers who had persevered to evolve a holistic strategy to overcome all social unequal circumstances by universalising human values. This paper will throw light on his discourses on religion, nation, heritage and self-worth, which were integral part of his social agenda to create a society of harmony and equity. He fought a good fight till his death and left a legacy worth preserving.

Aesthetics of Dalit Literature and Satyam Shivam and Sundram : An Overview

*Dr.Navratan Singh
The purpose of Dalit literature is to inform Dalit Society of its slavery and narrates its pain and suffering to upper caste Hindus. The purpose is very didactic. Its sole aim is to spread the feelings of universal brotherhood by defining the things universally true. It does not curtain the truths by the mystery of caste, religion and culture. It has its own truth and beauty. It is not an art for art’s sake but the wonderful art for life’s sake. It has it’s own exploration and aesthetics. Its beauty lies in its inspiration for social transformation. SharankumarLimbale in his well known book on Dalit aesthetics “Towards an Aesthetic of Dalit literature” says ............

Inclusive Environmentalism: A Study of Jotiba Phule’s Ideas from Ecological Prescriptive

*Dr. V.M. Ravi Kumar
Jotiba Phule considered as one of critical and original thinkers of modern India. His ideas have hitherto been studied from the prospective of non-Brahman, women empowerment, social equality etc. But, his idea on environmentalism which means the relationship between man and nature has not yet been explored. This paper attempts to document the ecological dimension of Jotiba Phule and its relevance to the contemporary world. Particularly environmental governance in the contemporary Indian society requires the ideas of Jotiba Phule who advocated an organic linkage between man and nature from the prescriptive of inclusive progress of biotic world.

Insecurity of Tribal Women in Unorganised Sector After 90’s : A Study of Dahod District in Gujarat

*Ruchi Patel
Gujarat, a state in Western India has since time immemorial been renowned for its entrepreneurial spirit. It is known as growth engine of India, but in prosperous Gujarat a high proportion of socially and economically underprivileged sections of society. Informal sector workers are those who do not have job security, income security, employment security, food security, health security and social security and are therefore extremely vulnerable to exogenous shocks. Traditionally, tribal women have lagged behind men in terms of entering the labour force. Informal sector in Gujarat is a source of livelihood to a majority of the poor, unskilled and socially marginalised and female population. Female work participation has always been low at 26 percent compared to 52% of men in India. This gap is visible in Gujarat also. The problem in Dahod is that tribal women have always been at work but never been realistic to include their contribution to the economy and the society. Gujarat economy has preponderance of informal sector both in terms of number of workers and enterprises. The process of economic reforms has opened up new opportunities of employment and during this process the industries in general demand cheap labour and female labour easily fall in this category. But, if we look at the quality of the employment in these units these are basically exploitative in nature. There is an increase in home-based sub-contracted activities which are largely piece-rated, violate all labour laws. Tribal women labourers have to face lot of exploitation in terms of quality of work. Of late with the coming of some NGOs there is a little improvement in the position of female tribal workers in Dahod but still they have a long way to go to get identity and empowerment.

Inequality, Development and Dalits’ Inclusion

* Dr. Rabindra Kumar
Indian society /Hindu society is not a homogeneous whole but is vertically divided into varnas and Jatis. The Hindu social order is a ladder of castes placed one above the other, together representing an ascending scale of respect and a descending scale of contempt. Dalits occupy the extreme lowest position in the social hierarchy of hindu society. Dalit means India’s untouchables or ex-untouchables, acchuts, ‘Harijan’, Avarna, Outcastes, and Scheduled Castes to cite a few of the name used to describe them. The Dalits have been subjected to various kinds of social discrimination and deprivation through the ages. The framer of the constitution made special provisions which may be grouped into three categories namely protective, developmental and preferential for inclusion of the dalilts in the mainstream of the society. Eleventh five year plan (2007-2012) and twelfth five year plan (2012-2017) advocate the inclusive growth of the country. It demands that all social groups have equal accesses to the services provided by the state and equal opportunity for upward economic and social mobility. In principle government also talks about reservation in private sectors. Prime Minister, Manmohan Singh on June 27, 2005 in his speech at the meeting of the 51st National Development Council (NDC) had affirmed that, “If the benefits of growth have to reach all sections of our diverse society, there is a need to equip them with the necessary skills and resources to become active participates in growth process... Tribal Sub Plan and Special Component Plans should be an integral part of Annual Plans as well as Five years Plans ,making provision therein non-divertible and non lapsable, with the clear objective of bridging the gap in socio- economic development of SCs and STs...”

Dalit Movements and Changes in the Caste System in India

*Prof. Nandu Ram
The author to examine,in this papers, the types and the extent of changes in the caste system caused by the Dalit movements carried out, especially after Independence, in different parts of the country. We shall also enquire into the genesis and the phased development of the Dalit movements, and analyse the issues raised and fought by them. Finally, we shall look into the future prospects of the Dalit movements and their roles to be played in bringing about some notable changes in the caste system in years to come.